How was Halloween invented? – Tillman, age 9, Asheville, North Carolina
THE CONVERSATION – “It’s alive!” Dr. Frankenstein cried as his creation stirred to life. But the creature had a life of its own, eventually escaping its creator’s control.
Much like Frankenstein’s monster, traditions are also alive, which means they can change over time or get reinvented. Built from a hodgepodge of diverse parts, Halloween is one such tradition that has been continually reinvented since its ancient origins as a Celtic pagan ceremony. Yet beneath the superhero costumes and bags of candy still beats the heart of the original.
“Yes, Halloween is Catholic … it is the ‘true and original substance’ of Halloween that is Catholic.” – goodcatholic.com
The Celts lived in what’s now Ireland as far back as 500 B.C. They celebrated New Year’s Day on Nov. 1, which they called Samhain. They believed that leading up to the transition to the new year, the door between the worlds of the living and the dead swung open.
The souls of the recently dead, previously trapped on Earth, could now pass to the underworld. Since they thought spirits came out after dark, this supernatural activity reached its peak the night before, on Oct. 31.
The Celts invented rituals to protect themselves during this turbulent time. They put on costumes and disguises to fool the spirits. They lit bonfires and stuck candles inside carved turnips – the first jack-o’-lanterns – to scare away any spirits looking for mischief. If all else failed, they carried a pocketful of treats to pay off wayward spirits and send them back on their way to the underworld.
Although focused on the dead, Samhain was ultimately for the living, who needed plenty of help of their own when transitioning to the new year. Winter was cold and dark. Food was scarce. Everyone came together for one last bash to break bread, share stories and stand tall against the dead, strengthening community ties at the time they were needed most.
When Catholics arrived in Ireland around A.D. 300, they opened another door between worlds, unleashing considerable conflict. They sought to convert the Celts by changing their pagan rituals into Christian holidays. They rechristened Nov. 1 “All Saints Day,” which today remains a celebration of Catholic saints.
“While some people have connected Halloween to earlier pagan celebrations of the new year, Halloween actually has significant Catholic roots.” – Vatican News
But the locals held on to their old beliefs. They believed the dead still wandered the Earth. So the living still dressed in costumes. This activity still took place the night before. It just had a new name to fit the Catholic calendar: “All Hallows Eve,” which is where we got the name Halloween.
Irish immigrants brought Halloween to America in the 1800s while escaping the Great Potato Famine. At first, Irish Halloween celebrations were an oddity, viewed suspiciously by other Americans. As such, Halloween wasn’t celebrated much in America at the time.
As the Irish integrated into American society, Halloween was reinvented again, this time as an all-American celebration. It became a holiday primarily for kids. Its religious overtones faded, with supernatural saints and sinners being replaced by generic ghosts and goblins.
Carved turnips gave way to the pumpkins now emblematic of the holiday. Though trick-or-treating resembles ancient traditions like guising, where costumed children went door to door for gifts, it’s actually an American invention, created to entice kids away from rowdy holiday pranks toward more wholesome activities.
“Samhain (a Gaelic word pronounced “SAH-win”) is a pagan religious festival originating from an ancient Celtic spiritual tradition. In modern times, Samhain is usually celebrated from October 31 to November 1 to welcome in the harvest and usher in ‘the dark half of the year.’” – history.com
Halloween has become a tradition many new immigrants adopt along their journey toward American-ness and is increasingly being exported around the world, with locals reinventing it in new ways to adapt it to their own culture.
What’s so special about Halloween is that it turns the world upside down. The dead walk the Earth. Rules are meant to be broken. And kids exercise a lot of power. They decide what costume to wear. They make demands on others by asking for candy. “Trick or treat” is their battle cry. They do things they’d never get away with any other time, but on Halloween, they get to act like adults, trying it on to see how it fits.
Because Halloween allows kids more independence, it’s possible to mark significant life stages through holiday firsts. First Halloween. First Halloween without a parent. First Halloween that’s no longer cool. First Halloween as a parent.
Growing up used to mean growing out of Halloween. But today, young adults seem even more committed to Halloween than kids.
What changed: adults or Halloween? Both.
Caught between childhood and adulthood, today’s young adults find Halloween a perfect match to their struggles to find themselves and make their way in the world. Their participation has reinvented Halloween again, now bigger, more elaborate and more expensive. Yet in becoming an adult celebration, it comes full circle to return to its roots as a holiday celebrated mainly by adults.
Halloween is a living tradition. You wear a costume every year, but you’d never wear the same one. You’ve changed since last year, and your costume reflects that. Halloween is no different. Each year, it’s the same celebration, but it’s also something totally new. In what ways are you already reinventing the Halloween of the future today?
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This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article here: https://theconversation.com/how-was-halloween-invented-once-a-celtic-pagan-tradition-the-holiday-has-evolved-to-let-kids-and-adults-try-on-new-identities-192379.
7 scary Halloween health hazards
October 18, 2022
Laura Farach, MD, a pediatrician for Kaiser Permanente describes 7 scary health hazards parents should know about to ensure families have a safe and happy Halloween.
1. Food allergies
When it comes to candy, peanuts, and other foods, it’s always important to read labels and avoid treats without labels. It’s essential to carry an epinephrine auto-injector if prescribed. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, food allergies account for 35% to 50% of all cases of severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reactions that can occur in children and adults. In addition, it’s paramount to only eat factory-wrapped treats and candy as that is a safer practice.
While COVID-19 may not be as big a concern for parents this Halloween, Dr. Farach encourages children to wear a mask as part of their costume, when possible, to maximize protection. Also, children should always wash their hands with soap upon returning from trick-or-treating.
It’s important to ensure that a child’s mask has large enough eye holes for them to see clearly. Children should wear bright and reflective costumes, and parents should beware of any small parts on costumes on which a child could choke. Also, check the length of costumes to make sure they don’t cause your child to trip.
4. Face paint
Before you apply makeup near your child’s eyes, beware that it could contain harmful chemicals. If makeup is applied, it should be applied first in small amounts to the arm of the person who will be wearing it. The appearance of a rash or other signs of irritation could indicate an allergic reaction.
5. Hand injury
Pumpkin carving is a cherished Halloween tradition many families enjoy each year. However, carving knife injuries can lead to nerve, tendon, and artery damage. Encourage children to draw the pattern on the pumpkin but leave the knife work to adults.
6. Fire hazards
What’s a Halloween without decorating your home with spooky decorations and, in many cases, lighted ornaments? Dr. Farach warns that using candles can present some truly scary fire safety hazards. Lighting up your jack-o-lantern with LED lights or electric candles is the safest option, she says.
7. Walking after dark
Last, but not least, Dr. Farach encourages parents to provide children with flashlights or glow sticks to light their way and provide greater visibility so drivers may see them easily while they’re outside. Additionally, review street safety ahead of time with children. SOURCE: Kaiser Permanente